ODIs: A transformation of HSI to IVI

There is no doubt that the IVI is a very effective non-contextual measure of an ODI innings. Let us see how this measures up in reality.

I was fascinated with Shai Hope’s innings of 108 not out, out of a total of 198/9, with the next highest contribution being 19.   -  AFP

I recently had the opportunity to glance at the scorecard of the Bangladesh-West Indies One-Day International match at Sylhet after updating my database. I was fascinated with Shai Hope’s innings of 108 not out, out of a total of 198/9, with the next highest contribution being 19.

I wondered what would be the HSI — High Score Index, which defines the support received by the batsman and his own contribution to the team innings — value for the innings. The HSI value came to be 3.37, which was good enough to place Hope’s innings in the top 20.

HSI = (Runs/Next highest score) x (Runs/Team runs, excluding extras)

This, Hope’s HSI value of 3.37, was calculated using the formula (108/19) x (108/182). Then I found that Hope’s strike rate was way higher than that of his teammates. I started thinking of the ODI game. If the HSI had to be a single index that was going to define an ODI innings, then it had to include a factor based on the relative strike rates. Things moved forward quickly and I decided to strengthen the HSI. I picked a new name for this since it no longer represented only the support the other batsmen provided. I called it Innings Value Index, and the revised formula is given below.

IVI = (Runs/Next highest score) x (Runs/Team runs) x (Batsman’s strike rate/Rest of the batsmen’s strike rate)

The IVI represents the innings as a composite of the non-contextual factors and could be used to do a quick evaluation of the innings, something that Spell Value Index did for the ODI bowling spells. This was presented by me in my article ‘Evaluating ODI bowling spells’ published in Sportstar on October 19, 2017.

Let me do a quick calculation to compare the value of IVI: a comparison of three identical innings (100 in 150 balls) made out of a team innings of 210 in 300 balls, with 10 extras. If the next highest innings is 75, the IVI is 0.667, that is (100/75) x (100/200) x (0.667/0.667). If the next highest innings is 40, the IVI is 1.25. If the next highest innings is 20, the IVI is 2.5. Note how the IVI changes dramatically as the support factor comes down.

Kapil Dev’s all-time classic innings at Tunbridge Wells against Zimbabwe in the 1983 World Cup tops the table with an IVI of 15.07.   -  The Hindu Photo Library

 

Now for a different comparison. A quick comparison of three innings, with differing strike rates, made out of a team innings of 210 in 300 balls, with 10 extras and a next highest innings of 50. If the 100 was made in 75 balls, the IVI is 3, that is (100/50) x (100/200) x (1.333/0.444). If the 100 was made in 120 balls, the IVI is 1.5. If the 100 was made in 150 balls, the IVI is 1. Note how the IVI changes dramatically as the scoring rate comes down.

Now imagine the effect of all three key measures varying. There is no doubt that the IVI is a very effective non-contextual measure of an ODI innings. Let us see how this measures up in reality. It is essential that I take care to exclude innings such as Tamim Iqbal’s 37 out of 70 against West Indies in 2014. This is too small an innings to merit serious consideration. The IVI is 7.79, but it does not really mean much. So, only individual innings of 50 or more will be considered. Also excluded are innings in which fewer than five wickets were lost. Scoring 80 out of 95 for no loss, as Brendon McCullum did, surely does not warrant consideration.

Kapil Dev’s 175 not out

No one would be surprised with the fact that Kapil Dev’s all-time classic innings at Tunbridge Wells against Zimbabwe in the 1983 World Cup tops the table. Consider the match itself. On the verge of elimination and the desperate need to win the match, India slumped to 9/4 when Kapil Dev walked in. Soon the score was 17/5. A win for Zimbabwe by lunch seemed certain. Kapil Dev scored 175 not out, one of the three all-time great innings ever, and took India to an impressive 266/8. India won by 31 runs, qualified for the next round and ultimately won the World Cup.

The next highest score to Kapil’s 175 was Kirmani’s 24 (IVI of 7.292). Kapil scored his runs out of a batsmen’s total of 254 (0.689). His scoring rate was 1.268 and the rest of the team scored at 0.356 (3.563-capped at 3). The product of these factors took Kapil’s IVI to a magnificent 15.07, the best ever in ODI cricket. In my personal opinion, only one innings can lay claim to being a better one, and that is the next one featured here.

Viv Richards’ 189 not out

This magnificent effort came a year after Kapil’s classic. At Old Trafford, the West Indies lost the first seven wickets for 102. Richards, who had entered at 11/2, had already crossed 50. He added 59 with Eldine Baptiste and then Joel Garner got out. The score was a paltry 166/9. Richards essayed one of the greatest ODI partnerships ever, adding 106 unbeaten runs with Michael Holding, who scored 12 not out. The West Indies’ 272 was over a 100 runs too much for England.

In his innings of 189 not out against England, West Indies great Viv Richards’ IVI was a magnificent 12.78, the second best ever in ODI cricket.   -  Getty Images

 

The next highest score to Richards’ 189 was Baptiste’s 26 (7.269). Richards scored his runs out of 262 (0.721). His scoring rate was 1.112 and the rest of the team scored at 0.456 (2.437). The product of these factors took Richards’ IVI to a magnificent 12.78, the second best ever in ODI cricket. I am indeed very happy to see that the two innings that I consider the best ever ODI innings are in the top two positions.

John Davison’s 111

This innings by Davison was played in a lost cause, understandable considering that Canada was playing the West Indies, in the 2003 World Cup. Canada scored 202 and Davison scored 111 out of this fair total. That the West Indies scored these 206 runs in 20.3 overs is another story.

The next highest score to Davison’s 111 was Chumney’s 19 (5.542). Davison scored his runs out of 190 (0.584). His scoring rate was 1.461 and the rest of the team scored at 0.436 (3.347, capped at 3). The product of these factors took Davison’s IVI to an excellent 10.24, the third best ever in ODI cricket, and it completes the trio of performances to cross a value of 10. I am indeed glad that a player from a lesser team has managed to be ranked along with two ODI giants.

 

Tony Ura’s 151

When Tony Ura scored 151 out of 225 for an unfancied Papua New Guinea, the next best innings was 25. He scored at better than a run a ball while the rest of the team scored at less than 0.5. His IVI of 9.2 was well earned. Let us not forget that this is a team with virtually no international experience and they were playing Ireland with plenty of international experience.

Rizwan Cheema’s 94

This is the only sub-100 innings among the featured ones. Cheema’s 94 in 89 balls took Canada to 187. The next highest score was 17. Cheema scored at well over a run a ball while the rest of the team scored at well under 0.5 runs per ball. The IVI of 8.71 stands well on Cheema’s shoulders, despite the fact that the match was lost.

David Gower’s 158

This was against New Zealand in 1983. England reached a match-winning total of 267 and this contained an absolute gem of an innings by David Gower. From 116/4, the side recovered to 229/4 and went on to the final total, that too against a very good Kiwi attack led by Richard Hadlee.

The next highest score to Gower’s 158 was 34 by Derek Randall (4.647). Gower scored his runs out of 248 (0.637). His scoring rate was 1.339 and the rest of the team scored at 0.495 (2.707). The product of these factors took his IVI to 8.02.

Sean Williams’ 102

This match was against Afghanistan, and the next best score for Zimbabwe was only 16 out of a total of 172. There was not much difference between the scoring rates of Williams and the rest of the batsmen. This is the first occurrence of a chasing innings. Williams secured 7.59 as his IVI.

Faf du Plessis’ 126

This was also in an unsuccessful chasing innings against Australia. Chasing a total of 282/7, South Africa folded 62 runs short. It was a one-man show by du Plessis. The nearest score was Ryan McLaren’s 24. The scoring rates were comparable. The IVI matched Williams’s value.

Scott Styris’ 141

This was one of the all-time great ODI innings, that too in a World Cup. Chasing a total of 272, New Zealand fell nearly 50 runs short. Included in that modest total was this gem of an innings. The next highest score to Styris’ 141 was 32 (4.406). Styris scored his runs out of 210 (0.671). His scoring rate was 1.128 and the rest of the team scored at 0.466 (2.419). The product of these factors took Styris’ IVI to a high 7.16.

Chasing 272, New Zealand fell nearly 50 runs short, but the innings included a gem — Scott Styris’ 141 at an IVI of a high 7.16.   -  Reuters

 

Sanath Jayasuriya’s 151 not out

This was a magnificent match-winning innings against India. India could only set a target of 225 and Jayasuriya’s innings made this target look smaller than it was. Sri Lanka won comfortably by five wickets. The next highest score to Jayasuriya’s 151 was 38 (3.974). Jayasuriya scored his runs out of 216 (0.699). His scoring rate was 1.258 and the rest of the team scored at 0.52 (2.419). The product of these factors took Jayasuriya’s IVI to 6.722. It is interesting to note that only five wickets were lost by Sri Lanka.

The list is completed by Marlon Samuels’ 110 not out against Sri Lanka, Shai Hope’s recent innings of 108 not out against Bangladesh (the innings that started this voyage of discovery), Damien Martyn’s 116 not out against New Zealand, David Warner’s 156 against New Zealand and finally Sehwag’s 112 against New Zealand. The last two finished on the winning side. Sehwag’s scoring rate was an unusually slow 0.805. He took India to a one-wicket victory.

In the 15 innings featured here, only six finished on the winning side, showing that not all wonderful efforts take the team to a win. This fact also clearly emphasises the fact that the IVI measure is clearly a non-contextual one.

Just to emphasise this point, there were only 39 winning innings out of 139 that had IVI values greater than 3.0. A round 100 were in losing causes.

 

Anticipating the questions that would be raised in the minds of the readers, I have given below the IVI values for some well-known innings. This will let readers know that it is not that easy to get a high IVI value.

The IVI is the cornerstone to the innings rating system. Once contextual parameters like bowling quality, pitch quality, innings status, match status, importance of match, location and result are added, the ratings work is complete. The plus factor is also that the IVI can be calculated by any cricket follower on the back of an envelope.

The key to any great ODI innings is to score runs, score the runs quickly and play for the team. The IVI in essence captures all these characteristics.